Mentors offer insight and knowledge based on their own experience to others wishing to learn and develop their own skills. In both formal and informal settings, the mentoring role is crucial for growth – both personal and organization-wide. So, how people are introduced to the concept of mentoring is essential for what they want or need to get out of it.
Different Types of Mentors
Mentors, like people, are all unique. You may respond better to one type of mentor over another.
Here are eight different types of mentors.
An advisor is someone who makes suggestions and recommendations on what their mentee should do. Advisors also give advice based on their professional expertise and personal experience. Mentee’s who want to follow the same path would do well with an advisor.
Here’s where advisors are effective and ineffective:
- Acts as a sounding board and facilitator
- Maintains privacy/confidentiality
- Fixes problems for you
- Assumes responsibility for mentee
A protector is great for a mentee who is in the midst of a transition which can be stressful and have some risk. Protectors help prepare their mentees for growth by making sure they don’t make any mistakes that would be detrimental to their careers.
Here’s where protectors are effective and ineffective:
- Supports, is a safety net
- Ensures a safe environment to take risks
- Fights mentee’s battles
A developer is similar to a coach but is an observer without specific goals for performance improvements. Developers are good listeners and will point out red flags they recognize in their mentees. Likewise, if a mentee displays positive qualities like honesty, humility, or critical thinking a developer will make sure to point them out and commend them.
Here’s where developers are effective and ineffective:
- Gives structure and direction
- Provides guidance based on observations during interactions with mentee
- Empowers mentee to handle his/her problems independently
- Dictates, controls learning
- Looks for quick-fixes
- Provides general criticism or judgment
- Tells mentee what to do
A broker is great at connecting their mentee with opportunities to grow. Rather than discussing possibilities for growth, a broker will determine what their mentee wants to learn and then connect them with whoever is an expert in that area. Brokers are great mentors for mentees who are less inclined to talk a lot but are hungry to pursue learning opportunities.
Here’s where brokers are effective and ineffective:
- Identifies skill or competency gaps through a “third party” lens
- Identifies and facilitates development opportunities
- Allows for personal biases
- Abdicates, does not follow up
A challenger thrives on tough love and playing the devil’s advocate. They won’t stand for poor attitudes or faulty logic. They will push back on their mentees if they begin to complain about their challenges without considering possible solutions. Mentees that want someone to “tell them how it is” will thrive under these mentors. However, they may need thicker skin.
Here’s where challengers are effective and ineffective:
- Positively provokes, pushes toward highest standards
- Helps mentee explore potential career opportunities
- Pushes too far too soon
- Discounts mentee’s thoughts and opinions
A clarifier is a great companion to their mentee. A mentee who is independent and can pursue their growth without much direction would benefit from a clarifier. A clarifier will quickly be able to fill the gaps in the mentee’s knowledge based on their own experience within the organization. They can lean on their mentor, for example, if the mentee needs to know how to act at an upcoming board meeting.
Here’s where clarifiers are effective and ineffective:
- Teaches organizational values and politics
- Removes obstacles so mentee does not have to deal with organizational politics
Sponsors help their mentees meet the people who will make a difference in their careers. They have large networks and credibility. By having their recommendation for promotions or new opportunities, these mentees will gain access to professional growth much faster than if they were on their own.
Here’s where sponsors are effective and ineffective:
- Provides visibility and recognition of mentee
- Promotes mentee at the expense of others
An affirmer is great for mentees that respond well to a soft shoulder. Rather than tough love, affirmers are great listeners. If a mentee is going through a stressful situation they can trust that their mentor will be there to talk through it with them.
Here’s where affirmers are effective and ineffective:
- Gives needed support, enhances self-esteem
- Exhibits empathy and understanding
- Gives too much feedback
- Discounts mentee’s feelings or concerns
Now that we've outlined the different types of mentors let's explore the different types of mentoring programs.
Each of the types of mentors above can work in any of the program types below, however, some are better than others. For example, a sponsor-type mentor may not be great for group mentoring because they can't reasonably sponsor a group of mentees for a particular role.
Starting with the types of mentoring and how they work for each party involved, companies adopting mentoring programs need to determine first what is best for their end goal and the people invested. Resources and time play a big part here, and some methods are simply more suited to different causes.
One to One Mentoring
The most notable and traditional method of mentoring is on a one-to-one basis. This is where one mentor and mentee enter a mentoring relationship with the aim of guidance and support that is typically in the area of the mentor’s expertise. The mentor can directly share knowledge and offer developmental advice that helps the mentee achieve their goal of progression, for example.
This is also quite a common practice and helps when coaching and mentoring are needed to impact more mentees in a shorter time frame. Group mentoring is beneficial if there is a shortage of mentors or if something needs to be delivered quickly and efficiently. Group mentoring also offers the benefit of teamwork, support, and inclusion, which can be especially practical for inductions and onboarding.
Becoming more and more popular and viable in current times, virtual mentoring runs to the same principles and one-to-one mentoring only without location restrictions on either party. Mentoring can still work just as effectively even when offered virtually. With companies offering this as a mentoring method , it competes strongly with the ongoing pandemic and the need for remote working.
Existing mentorships can transition to virtual mentoring, and in new mentoring relationships, both parties are able to navigate this unfamiliar territory together.
This method is quite similar to group mentoring, only involving more mentors in a group. This type of mentoring caters to mentees with different needs and attributes and encourages diversity. This method of mentoring is common in employee resource groups or sports. Team mentoring allows different viewpoints to be heard and a range of perspectives to take guidance from.
In the same way that one-to-one mentoring works, reverse mentoring has the same kind of structure, only that a more junior person mentors a more senior person. Both parties can learn from each other and have input, but the reverse mentoring construct makes it a formal process, so it doesn’t just end with the junior listening to the senior. This type of mentoring is especially useful today where companies need updating or fresh ideas to maintain their success.
Formal and Informal Mentoring
The distinction between a formal and informal mentorship is important to note here, as having a mentor doesn’t always mean the process has to have a structure or be formally arranged. In an informal sense, this type of relationship tends to evolve naturally, as a friendship would, and advice and guidance are sought casually, especially to begin with. Informal mentors tend to be friends, family members and colleagues, but these relationships can evolve between company leaders and even “rival” executives to concern greater guidance in business decisions.
Famously, when Steve Jobs was CEO of Apple, he mentored Mark Zuckerberg, who was developing Facebook at the time. Zuckerberg thanked Jobs after his death in 2011 for being a great mentor and friend.
When looking at formal mentoring, there are more methodical approaches and structured techniques that allow for goals to be measured and attained with a clear, concise path. Formal mentoring is typically used within companies that recognize that the way to safeguard the business’s future is by sharing and passing down knowledge and skills. It is essential to see the continuation of the same values that define the company while invigorating the business with fresh ideas and perspectives. The way to do this is by supporting the development of employees through formal programs such as mentoring.
How Mentoring is Used and Why it Works
The different types of mentoring pave a clear path for those involved in that they should understand exactly why they are participating and what they are hoping to gain from the program. As a company, it is important to set correct expectations to mentors and cohorts, so they understand the type of mentoring that has been selected specifically for their cause.
For example, entering someone into a group mentoring program who was hoping to shadow a specific mentor in line with their career path would not have the desired effect. It may actually deter the mentee and lose trust in their organization. A one-to-one mentorship would be more appropriate and beneficial.
Taking a look at the uses for mentoring, it becomes clear which type of mentoring would work in each scenario.
Employees within companies looking to further their career can benefit significantly from having a mentor. Research has shown that people with mentors are five times more likely to receive a promotion than those without a mentor, and the success of such programs means that the demand for mentors in the workplace is higher than ever before.
Being a leader is more than just being promoted and having an understanding of finances and business. Soft skills, networking and decision-making, are all important factors of leadership, and a mentor with experience in this field is beneficial, but almost necessary to see how this ties in with the management aspect of the role.
Learning from seeing and doing is what enables everybody to learn in a practical environment. A mentor who can share knowledge in great people management, developing others and taking accountability for their work can impact somebody who is looking to step into a leadership role.
Observing a mentor in a leadership role also gives insight into having a superior position and being seen and treated differently as a manager. This is important as the way people interact can change almost immediately with a promotion, and this insight offers helpful preparation for it.
With a similar concept as leadership development, mentoring is important for company leaders and executives who are preparing for roles to open up within the business and usually target specific individuals for potential succession.
Succession planning tends to involve high up discussions over existing talent and how mentoring could help them learn and adapt to future roles when they arise. As people tend to move in and out of businesses due to changes in career, family planning, retirement and higher promotions, all companies should have a strategy in motion for continuous succession planning and mentoring employees with talent and desire to progress, so roles are fillable with ease.
When companies adopt mentoring programs for this use, it lets employees know that they are valued and that their development is being taken seriously. Although preparing for higher roles in this kind of plan doesn’t necessarily mean that a position will become available straight away, most employees see it as a positive move. They tend to enjoy the learning aspect and feel that their company is invested in their future.
Another widespread use for mentoring within an organization is for onboarding or induction purposes. When people think of a mentoring program, it can be an automatic assumption to believe that businesses will only invest in this type of learning for more senior or longer-serving employees. But providing a structured onboarding program can be a successful style of mentoring and gives employees a secure welcome into the business with a clear vision of their future there.
HR experts say that if a company has an efficient onboarding process, 91 percent of employees are more likely to stay with them for a year, and 69 percent are more likely to remain with the company for over three years. With employee retention and satisfaction in mind, onboarding as a form of mentoring is a great first step for employers to present themselves as a company taking its people and their futures seriously.
Onboarding gives new employees a welcome into the organization they need to transition from training and coaching into their actual job role with ease. It can be an anxious or awkward time for a lot of people. This approach helps to alleviate that. It is also an excellent opportunity to invite experienced employees into the world of mentoring, allowing shadowing of their job roles and sharing of their knowledge to support new workers.
This is where group or team mentoring could work effectively as the aim is to deliver a message in a selected time frame. Transition mentoring is designed to help employees adapt to new processes and procedures with ease.
A good example of this is when in early 2020, many businesses were forced to close their doors and order employees to work from home due to the ongoing pandemic. The unforeseen changes were a shock to many and required a period of transition for everyone. Transition mentoring was implemented widely to assist employees with the sudden change, to provide support and a forum to talk about concerns, as well as regular check-ins to ensure the continuation of workflow. It also helped employees get comfortable with their new settings.
Transition mentoring is also a great way to encourage collaboration between team members and make the buy into whatever message is delivered more widespread. Teamwork in mentoring works well in these situations as it eliminates views of potential favouritism and brings everyone forward to a similar level at the same time.
The cost of hiring recruits to fill roles within a business can cost an organization as high as six times as much as it can to hire from within, according to a study by Josh Bersin. With this in mind, a lot of companies encourage programs to retain talent.
Unlike succession planning, upskilling involves retaining existing employees in roles that already exist. These roles may be highly sought after by graduates looking to use their knowledge on modern technologies and practices to their advantage to gain favour for these roles. Using mentoring in upskilling helps to level the playing field and ensure that current employees have an equal chance to progress in their role.
Again, group mentoring works well in upskilling, especially when it involves coaching in the same areas as it is more efficient for delivering training to multiple people. But reverse mentoring can be highly successful in the sharing of knowledge between senior and junior employees.
Mentoring for Diversity and Inclusion
This is always a hot topic for mentoring. By companies ensuring their programs account for the inclusivity of people from all walks of life, it promotes fairness in opportunities within the organization.
The power of mentorship for employees coming from under-represented backgrounds is especially necessary to ensure that all career prospects are available to all. Peer-to-peer mentoring promotes inclusivity by giving people of a minority background the experience and focus on putting them in a position where promotion is both possible and likely. Mentoring doesn’t just have to be for those who are expecting a promotion. It can be used to gain a new perspective and understanding of hurdles under-represented people face daily.
There are also programs for women in leadership that promote mentoring women within the workplace in a similar nature, for promotional reasons, but also to gain that understanding of the difficulties they may have faced in their career. For these types of programs to work, they must be elite and must be structured in such a way that allows growth and learning on both sides, not just the mentees.
Continued engagement is vital for such programs to work well and to maintain a trusting employer/employee relationship and positive company reputation. Mentoring for diversity and inclusivity tackles the imbalance that has unfortunately existed for many years and provides support for all recognized talent from any gender or cultural background.